Friday, 12 February 2016

Types of Feminism - Intersectional

EgaFem the Enterprise Series:
Introduction: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/egafem-enterprise-introduction.html
Vision: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/egafem-enterprise-vision.html
Strategy: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/egafem-enterprise-strategy1622.html
Campaign Stakeholders: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/egafems-campaign-stakeholders.html

Types of Feminism:
Libertarian and Egalitarian Feminism: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/types-of-feminism-libertarian.html
Liberal and Marxist Feminism: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/types-of-feminism-liberal-and-marxist.html
Radical and Socialist Feminism: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/types-of-feminism-radical-and-socialist.html
Intersectional Feminism: This article
Transnational Feminism: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/02/types-of-feminism-transnational.html
Other Types of Feminism: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/03/types-of-feminism-other.html

Author: Blaise Wilson

Name: Intersectional Feminism

Alternative names: Social Justice Warriors (SJW), Black, Queer, Coloured, Outcome, Multiracial, Third Wave, Post-feminism, Modern

Description:
Intersectional Feminism added to the Socialist Feminism concept of capitalism oppressing women by considering additional characteristics. They contend that eliminating profit-driven society it will remove the underlying motivation for the oppression of collective groups [3, 4].

Intersectional Feminism takes not only the oppression of gender (including transgender) but also race, class, ability, sexual orientation, religion, caste, age, local customs, local history, and other identifiers into account by forming a ‘hierarchy of oppression’ through combining the perceived oppressions of these characteristics [4, 6, 12, 20]. For example, a black women is consider more oppressed than a white women, due to the additional oppression of her race.

Intersectional Feminism has its roots in Black Feminism [2, 10] which arose after women of colour felt previous forms of feminism did not represent them.

Intersectional Feminism is part of Third Wave Feminism becoming popular in the 1980s. By this time in the Western World women already had the right to vote, equal pay for equal work, greater rights to their bodies, and a greater right to education. Thus, Third Wave Feminism concentrates on issues of language, stereotypes, and the media portrayal of women, with particular interest in dismantling social binary concept of male and female. Sometimes this includes changing the definition of words to suit the Intersectional Feminist ideology [1]. This is an extension of the concept that gender is a social construct, not a biological one [5].

Definition of Equality:

Equality of Outcome for the Collective with a hierarchy of oppression based on identity.

Gender is 100% a social construct.

Root cause of problems:

Capitalism and language.

Dates:
Became popular in the 1980s onwards as part of Third Wave Feminism.

Examples:

History:
Intersectional Feminism has its roots in Black Feminism, which started as early as 1974, but start to become popular in the 1980s [7, 8]. This makes it part of Third Wave Feminism.

It came from a backlash against ‘white western’ feminism, which people of colour argued did not appreciate their double oppression of being female and of colour. They felt previous incarnations of feminism only represented middle class white women, who already had increased privilege [8].

The term ‘Intersectional’ is used instead of ‘Black’ to make it more inclusive and allow white feminist to join the fight [0].

Critique:

By using the term ‘Black’ Feminism it birthed the tag ‘White’ Feminism. However, using the term Intersectional Feminism instead has largely reduced this animosity within feminism based on colour, which weakened the overall feminist movement [7, 10]. It also dismissing those of mixed-race and the experiences of other non-white [0].

Our own Blaise Wilson concocted the term ‘The Hierarchy of Oppression’ and discussed the negative impacts in an earlier article, particularly highlighting the erasure of victims based on gender and race after Intersectional Feminists claimed a non-white women cannot be sexist or racists against white men, setting a dangerous precedent and dismissing individual victims due to a collective privilege or oppression [0, 20].

George Orwell’s book ‘1984’ has often been cited as being ‘a warning not a manual’ by critics of Intersectional Feminism in response to their extreme attempts to control language. These controls are often seen as ‘petty’, causing some outcry that if language is the last oppression of women and race, then for all intense and purposes real discrimination has been eliminated [0].

The control of language is also the control of freedom of expression, putting Intersectional Feminism squarely against Freedom of Speech [25].

Intersectional Feminism often no-platform people they disagree with, rather than engage them in debate. Even Radical Feminists who disagree with parts of the Intersectional ideology [26]

Often opposition to Intersectional Feminism campaigns place the term ‘gate’ at the end, for example ‘DictionaryGate’ [21] referencing the Watergate Scandal and recently having been made popular by the ongoing ‘Gamergate’ discussion.

By using identity politics Intersectional Feminism is encouraging individuals to be judged on their gender and race first, and their ability as an afterthought [0].

Allies and enemies:

Social Justice Warriors (SJW) and Intersectional Feminism are difficult to tell apart, making them perfect allies, with the two terms being used interchangeably [0].

Intersectional Feminism has become very pervasive, gaining power in hugely influential places such as the UN (where they produced the UN Cyber-violence report [22]), and has gained favour within the Atheist Plus community which has now started de-platforming prominent Atheists for crimes such as retweeting a parody YouTube video making fun of Feminists [23]).

The Intersectional Feminist victim narrative has also seeped into Twitter and Facebook. Both sites now getting a reputation for an ad hoc application of punishments against those who actively denounce Intersectional Feminist ideology. Twitter has even set up a ‘Trust and Safety Council’ supported by a range of organisations, many of whom stand against freedom of speech on grounds of being offended [28]

Intersectional Feminism and SJW attempted to infiltrate the gaming community, and have had some success in their attempts to censor video games to make them less ‘problematic’. Some games are no longer planned for release in the western world entirely. One possible example being a contribution for the decision not to release Dead or Alive Xtreme 3 in the UK and US markets [27]

Gamergate arose to highlight the poor ethic in gaming journalism, but Intersectional Feminism and SJW co-opted the message and twisted it to be about women in gaming, attempting to shame Gamergate by naming them as a hate group [0].

This shaming and control of language to call groups that disagree with Intersectional Feminism has become a trend. With the mainstream media not wanting to be labelled racist or sexist, they promote the SJW retorts and push a their narrative that Men’s Rights Activists and anyone else perceive to challenge the Intersectional Feminism ideology as a hate group against women [0].

Due to the perceived pettiness, lack of principles and attacks on other groups there has been a backlash from women against Intersectional Feminism through a movements such as Women Against Feminism [24].

Intersectional Feminism has made some very powerful allies in high places, but the result of this is a huge backlash from an increasing amount of sources [0].


Sub-Types of Intersectional Feminism

Africana Wominism, Chicana Feminism, and Postcolonial Feminism

There are some forms of Intersectional Feminism that particularly concentrate on certain sub-groups. Examples of these are Africana Wominism, Chicana Feminism, and Postcolonial Feminism [8, 10, 14]. Each of these sub-groups add specific dimensions to the narrative.

Postcolonial Feminism concentrates on the rejection of colonial power relationships, which they perceive strips natives of their local customers, traditions and values [12].

Africana Wominsm concentrates on the implications of the historic slavery of people of colour [8].

Chicana Feminism, also called Xicanisma, concentrates on the Mexican-American women that identify as Chincana and their historical, cultural, spiritual, educational and economic perspectives [14].

Womanism
Womanism was created as an alternative to feminism with one advocate claiming it wasn’t better or worse, they simply preferred the sound of Womanism over Feminism. They also cite they felt feminism was forced upon them and looked for a viable alternative [8].

Womanism has extra components when compared to Feminism, such as a very Christian spiritual element [8].

References:

[0] Author assertion.
[1] https://beingfeministblog.wordpress.com/2013/05/16/todays-feminism-a-brief-look-at-third-wave-feminism
[2] http://studysites.sagepub.com/ritzerintro/study/materials/reference/77708_10.2ref.pdf
[3] http://www.colorado.edu/Sociology/gimenez/work/rphil.html
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intersectionality#Feminist_thought
[5] https://beingfeministblog.wordpress.com/2013/05/16/todays-feminism-a-brief-look-at-third-wave-feminism/
[6] http://sociology.about.com/od/I_Index/fl/Intersectionality.htm
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_feminism
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Womanism#Ideologies
[9] http://pers-www.wlv.ac.uk/~le1810/femin.htm
[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postcolonial_feminism
[11] http://studysites.sagepub.com/ritzerintro/study/materials/reference/77708_10.2ref.pdf
[12] http://sparkcharts.sparknotes.com/womens/womens/section4.php
[13] http://www.academia.edu/6627686/Reclaiming_Third_World_Feminism_Or_Why_Transnational_Feminism_Needs_Third_World_Feminism
[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicana_feminism
[15] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transnational_feminism
[16] http://www.academia.edu/6627686/Reclaiming_Third_World_Feminism_Or_Why_Transnational_Feminism_Needs_Third_World_Feminism
[17] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_feminism
[18] http://studysites.sagepub.com/ritzerintro/study/materials/reference/77708_10.2ref.pdf
[19] http://sparkcharts.sparknotes.com/womens/womens/section4.php
[20] http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/blaises-opinions-hierarchy-of-oppression.html
[21] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIpMgh7aY74
[22] http://www.unwomen.org/~/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2015/cyber_violence_gender%20report.pdf
[23] http://us12.campaign-archive1.com/?u=1fe062c83a0e3b45fcbc0e2de&id=95aeb913c6&e=393d12151e
[24] http://womenagainstfeminism.tumblr.com/
[25] http://observer.com/2016/02/the-totalitarian-doctrine-of-social-justice-warriors/
[26] http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/oct/09/no-platform-universities-julie-bindel-exclusion-anti-feminist-crusade
[27] http://www.polygon.com/2015/12/1/9827456/koei-tecmo-dead-or-alive-xtreme-3-controversy-team-ninja
[28] https://blog.twitter.com/2016/announcing-the-twitter-trust-safety-council

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