Saturday, 28 November 2015

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism – Part 9 – Campaigns and Action

Author: Blaise Wilson

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Series:

Part 1 – Factors to be Controlled: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem1.html
Part 2- Assumptions: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem2.html
Part 3 – Freeing Women's Time and Money: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem3.html
Part 4 – Cultural Pressure : http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem4.html
Part 5 – Discrimination: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 6 – Discussion of Assumption 6: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 7 - Discussion of Assumption 1: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/the-outcome-of-outcome-feminism-part-7.html
Part 8 - The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Conclusion: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/outcomeoutcomefem8.html
Part 9 – Campaigns and Action: This article.

Introduction
This is a summary of the Outcome of Outcome Feminism series. It includes campaigns and action that can be taken forward. In addition it highlights further work for EgaFem to do.

Lastly, it provides some suggestions to empower individuals on actions they can take if they have been discriminated against, or what they can personally do to improve the Gender Wage Gap.

Campaigns

These will need further development, and a champion. These will be captured here: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/p/campagins_5.html
  • Dear White House – US centric suggestions to improve the Gender Wage Gap
  • Make the Gender Wage Gap measure more appropriate, or replace with a better measure of opportunity and discrimination
  • Investigate the suggested, and additional, solutions in a wider context. After a trade-offs and a balance of investment, implement the ones worth implementing
  • Stop using solutions that break the basic principles such as Positive Action and Quotas
Further Work

During this series some wider topics have come to light. Further investigation and evidence into these topics may prove insightful when addressing Feminist issues.

During this investigation it was suggested that Outcome Feminism does not comply with basic Principles. An investigation should establish what evidence there is to support or disprove this claim.

Discrimination: Empower the Individual

If you think you have been discriminated against, here are some suggestions on what you could do:

We do not give legal advice. You must take personal responsibility for your own choices, these are just some ideas.

Reduce the Wage Gap: Empower the Individual

There are some actions every individual could take in order to be more aware of, and support the reduction of the Gender Wage Gap.
  • Improve your own self-confidence
  • Improve the self-confidence of others, including dependants
  • Join a campaign
  • Encourage others to join a union
  • Join a union
  • Research and empower though knowledge e.g. a philosophy course, critical thinking course, self-empowering course, self-confidence course. Read up on the Gender Wage Gap
  • Celebrate stay at home parents
  • Celebrate people who love their chosen careers regardless of pay
  • Help people who are not happy in their current role by helping them work out what they want, and how to get there
  • Encourage a culture of openness about terms and conditions within your own company
  • Ensure you always uphold the basic principles
  • When basic principles are broken, call it out
  • Do not use the Gender Wage Gap as evidence of discrimination or opportunity
These lists are not exhaustive, but hare a good starting point.

Saturday, 21 November 2015

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism – Part 8 – The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Conclusion

Author: Blaise Wilson

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Series:

Part 1 – Factors to be Controlled: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem1.html
Part 2- Assumptions: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem2.html
Part 3 – Freeing Women's Time and Money: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem3.html
Part 4 – Cultural Pressure : http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem4.html
Part 5 – Discrimination: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 6 – Discussion of Assumption 6: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 7 – Discussion of Assumptions 1: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/the-outcome-of-outcome-feminism-part-7.html
Part 8 – The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Conclusion: This article
Part 9 - Campaigns and Action: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/outcomeoutcomefem9.html
Abstract/TLDR

In the conclusion to the Outcome of Outcome Feminism series, it is established that Third Wave Feminism is a rejection of basic principles, which is an insult to their own historic roots.

Introduction

The Outcome of Outcome Equality Feminist series concentrated on the Gender Wage Gap as its example. It looked at solutions suggested by Outcome Feminists, including the assumptions those solutions were built on.

Here it is brought back to the main premise of this series - the Outcome of Outcome Feminism.

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Conclusion

As discussed previously [1], the Gender Wage Gap is an unsuitable measure of discrimination and opportunity, based on false assumptions [2]. The first suggestion is to find a more suitable measure of equality of opportunity. This test must respect that men and women are physically, mentally and chemically different and thus tend to make different choices in life – and thus will have different outcomes when considered as a whole.

This respect should include the choice to be a stay at home parent. Being forced into any role should be fought, but for those who volunteer to raise the next generation or to look after a loved ones should be celebrated, not berated.

The Gender Wage Gap in the UK compares oranges and apples – full to part time workers. If the Gender Wage Gap is continued to be used it should always be represented the components of full and part time workers separately. It should include all sources of income, including benefits.

Although all these solutions may work to reduce the Gender Wage Gap, EgaFem believes in Principles that should never be broken. These principles are more important than the Gender Wage Gap, and so solutions that break them will be rejected.

EgaFem’s core principles are:
  • Equal Opportunity – The #NounSwap Test
  • Personal Liberty
  • Personal Responsibility
  • Rule of Law
  • Free Markets
  • Freedom of Assembly
  • Freedom of the Press
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of Thought
  • Political Freedom
Rejected Solutions

How solutions are implemented may save them from the rejection list. How they are designed and managed will have a huge impact on their effectiveness on producing equality of opportunity and reducing discrimination.
  • Making preschool education compulsory – Personal Liberty
  • Pay individuals to raise their own kids – Personal Responsibility
    • UK Benefits
    • Welfare
    • Laws
    • Government schemes
  • Force on-site childcare facilities – Free Market
  • Tax men and women differently – Equality of Opportunity
  • Education to encourage women into non-stereotypical career choices – Equality of Opportunity if only provided for women.
    • Encourage women into higher paid jobs - Equality of Opportunity if only provided for women.
    • Provide personal mentors to women - Equality of Opportunity if only provided for women.
    • Scholarships for women in non-stereotypical roles - Equality of Opportunity if only provided for women.
  • Treat men and women differently – Equality of Opportunity 
    • Pay women more – Equality of Opportunity, Free Market,
    • Positive Action to provide additional support to women – Equality of Opportunity
  • Quotas – Equality of Opportunity, Free Markets
  • Create well-paid jobs tailored to women’s needs – Free Markets
  • Improve regulations and standards tailored for women – Equality of Opportunity, Free Markets
  • Improved self-employed woman’s networking opportunities – Equality of Opportunity unless also improved for men
Approved Solutions for Further Investigation

This isn’t to say these approved solutions should be adopted without further consideration! Or that this list is exhaustive. These, and additional options, should be investigated further and a trade-off done. For example raising minimum wage has huge knock on effects and could end up being more detrimental than positive as companies are forced to fire employees to cover increased costs.

These solutions do not break EgaFem’s core principles – however it does not mean these solutions will be effective in reducing the Gender Wage Gap. In addition, these are not personal endorsements of individual EgaFem members, simply solutions that do not break the core principles.

These solutions have been categorised according to personal opinion on how effective they would be in reducing the gender wage gap, considering the discussions of the solutions in the earlier articles:

Least Effective:
  • Raise minimum wage
  • Education on the harms of social norms
  • Force companies to publish gender based statistics
Medium Effectiveness:
  • Shaming and praising (must be done with care, to ensure it does not back fire and damage the Feminist reputation e.g. shame stay at home mothers)
  • Education to encourage everyone into non-stereotypical career choices
  • Provide personal career mentors to everyone
Most Effective:
  • Encourage (not force) men to do more childcare and housework
  • After school programmes
  • High quality, affordable, flexible, and reliable childcare offered from birth
  • Flexi-time
  • Clear advanced work schedules
  • Encourage on-site childcare facilities
  • Transition from part to full time work
  • Improve self-confidence for all
  • Improved punishment for discrimination
  • Equal pay for broadly equal work, with checks in place to ensure this remains
  • Encourage a culture of openness about pay and benefits
  • Encourage individuals to join a union
US Centric Note:

The US has a 23% full time wage gap, compared to the UK’s 10%. Some of the solutions highlighted in this series have been implemented by the UK but not the US. These may explain some of the difference in Gender Wage Gap. If the White House is serious about reducing the Gender Wage Gap, they should consider their position on:
  • Allowing employees to join a union
  • Paycheck Fairness Act – allow individuals to discuss their work contracts and benefits
  • Paid leave, including paid sick leave
  • Where benefits are given, provide it on an individual entitlement, not household
  • Scrap higher tax on second family earners
  • Paid new parent leave
Discussion of this Series

This series discussed the Outcome of Outcome Feminism. By using outcome as a measure of equality, many of the Outcome Feminist suggestions would have a negative impact on equality of opportunity based on gender. Without principles some of the suggestions they put forth would ultimately cause discrimination based on gender in pursuit of a misguided measurement.

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism is the rejection of core principles – which could have dangerous consequences in the long term. For example, freedom of speech. If the patriarchy theory is correct, then Outcome Feminists should be fighting tooth, nail and claw to ensure principles like freedom of speech are respected to the nth degree.

After all, surely if freedom of speech was removed the first thing any true patriarchal society would do is to silence the women? Thus, Feminists who are against basic principles could be doing themselves, and women as a whole, a disservice in the future.

Further investigation into the topic of Outcome Feminism and Basic Principles is needed.

Conclusion

To summaries EgaFem recommends:
  1. Investigating a more suitable measure of effectiveness for opportunity and discrimination that respects men and women are different, including different average outcomes.
  2. Investigate current solutions and consider stopping those that break the basic principles, use the funds to put into more suitable solutions.
  3. When the Gender Wage Gap is used, always segregate full and part time workers. It should include all incomes, including benefits.
  4. Respecting and celebrating stay at home parents, they have the greatest influence over the future. Celebrate individual’s choice of career, stereotypical or not.
  5. Where individuals are forced into roles, ensure they have the support to be able to escape.
  6. Investigate additional solutions and those suggested above, implementing the ones that are worthy after trade-off analyse and have evidence it would improve equality of opportunity and/or lower discrimination.
  7. Ensuring principles are upheld at all times, for everyone, to ensure the long term freedoms of all - including women.
The conclusion to the Outcome of Outcome Feminist series found that Feminists who seek Equality of Outcome at the determent of Equality of Opportunity believe principles should not apply to everyone. This puts them at risk of denying other principles such as Personal Responsibility, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Thought and so forth.

The loss of principles could have a devastating impact on women (and men) as they loss the rights fought for by First Wave Feminism. As such Third Wave Feminism is an insult to their own history.

Egalitarian Feminism believes in principles. We are a throwback to First Wave Feminism’s core believes of Equality of Opportunity. Thus, we reject Third Wave Outcome Feminism and we reject the concept that Gender is a Social Concept - a false assumption [2] that must be made for Outcome Feminism to justify its actions.

References

[1] EgaFem discussion on Assumption 1 – the Gender Wage Gap is a problem that needs to be fixed:
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/the-outcome-of-outcome-feminism-part-7.html accessed 21/11/2015

[2] EgaFem discussion on Assumption 6 – Gender is a Social Construct:
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html accessed 21/11/2015

Friday, 6 November 2015

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism – Part 7 – Discussion of Assumption 1

Author: Blaise Wilson

The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Series:

Part 1 – Factors to be Controlled: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem1.html
Part 2- Assumptions: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem2.html
Part 3 – Freeing Women's Time and Money: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem3.html
Part 4 – Cultural Pressure : http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/outcomeoutcomefem4.html
Part 5 – Discrimination: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 6 – Discussion of Assumption 6: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html
Part 7 – Discussion of Assumptions 1: This article
Part 8 - The Outcome of Outcome Feminism Conclusion: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/outcomeoutcomefem8.html
Part 9 - Campaigns and Action: http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/11/outcomeoutcomefem9.html

Abstract/TLDR

In this article the assumption that the Gender Wage Gap is a suitable measure of opportunity and discrimination is investigated.

After highlighting 'best practice' from countries with no wage gap, it was discovered that working part-time or not at all is a luxury that should be appreciated rather than condemned.

A survey revealed that most full-time working mothers of young children would prefer to work fewer hours, countering the assertion most women want to have full-time careers over domestic responsibilities.

The conclusion shows the Gender Wage Gap is based on faulty assumptions and is not a suitable measure of discrimination or opportunity. It does not take wider factors into account and should not be used. Alternative measures should be investigated.

Introduction

In order to keep this series in a reasonable length, only two of the assumptions previously highlighted [4] are analysed. Assumption 6: Gender is a Social Construct was analysed in the previous article [8], this article covers Assumption 1: The Wage Gap is a problem that needs to be solved.

If this assumption proves to be false, it means using the Gender Wage Gap as a measure of effectiveness is inappropriate and alternative measures should be investigated.

“Assumption 1: The Wage Gap is a problem that needs to be fixed [1, 2].

It assumes that the correct result Wage Gap should be zero, and that all women should be earning the same as all men, regardless of any other factors. It also highlights that there is a need to “recognize best practice and success stories” [2] from others that have a minimal wage gap.” [4]

First lets look at an example of 'best practise' in which the wage gap is akin to zero. Such as Rwanda, Burundi and Nicaragua.

Best Practice

“Rwanda receives a perfect score (1.00 = equality) for labour-market participation; 88 per cent of women and 86 per cent of men have some form of paid employment... Although lots of Rwandan women and men work, it seems most barely earn enough to lift them out of poverty. In Britain, with its higher GDP, women in general have far more options open to them and some can even afford the luxury of not working outside the home at all. That most Rwandan women don’t have this choice hardly seems something to celebrate.” [3]

This demonstrates an important point. The option of being a stay at home parent is a privilege. Even the choice of going part-time instead of full-time is a choice many in deprived countries do not have. Such choices should not be taken for granted, and certainly not looked down upon.

Wage Gap Break Down

Breaking down the Gender Wage Gap into full and part-time components provides an interesting picture.

In the UK full time working men earn 10% more than their female counterparts [5, p12]. However, men also work 10% more hours than women: “In 2013 men, on average, worked 40.1 [6, p4] to 44 [6, p19] hours compared to women's 37.4 [5, p4] to 40 [6, p19] hours [5, p4].” [9] (references have been updated to co-inside with the links below).

When considering the part-time scenario women earn more than men, with women not only working an average of 1 hour more than men [5, p5], but also being paid more, with men earning £7.95 to women's £8.40 an hour [5 p5].

Women are far more likely to work part-time than men [6, p1] and it is only by comparing all men to all women, by comparing part-time to full-time work that the gender pay gap comes out at 19.7% in 2013 [7, p4]. The main reason for the discrepancy is hours worked. Thus the main way to reduce the gender pay gap is to ensure the average work done by all men equals that or all women – either by increasing women's work or decreasing men's. However, once children are taken into account, the biological influences of estrogen plays a role in many women prioritising time with their children over their careers, meaning they are less likely to want to work full-time [8].

Netmums released the results of a survey of over 4000 mothers of young children and “the results included the fact that 88% of those working full time would rather work part time or stay at home with their children.” [10]

The concept that men and women are equally likely to be the main caregivers to their children in based in the concept that gender is a social concept, and this assumption was dispelled in the previous post [8].

Is the Wage Gap a Suitable Measure?

The wage gap is a measure of paid working hours, not including benefits which might make a significant difference. It is used to demonstrate discrimination however this is built on faulty assumptions and does not take biology into account. It does not reflect equality of opportunity, as it is only a measure of outcome without considering wider factors or individual choice.

Discussion

The survey quoted used a self-selected and specific demographic (mothers of young children) and the data highlighted could suffer from the accusation of cherry picked data. Further surveys on men and women's preference for hours worked, especially with children, might provide interesting results. It would either support or refute the idea that all women want to work the same as all men, highlighting if the outcomes of hours worked are choice or if individuals are being forced into their current roles.

Other further work could include the discussion of the other assumptions mentioned in this series, but haven’t been analysed. If anyone would like to take on this role or has discussed similar topics on their own website, please contact us [11].

As the Gender Wage Gap is based on the assumption that women only choose to priorities their families due to social pressure, rather than at least partially by biological influences (gender is a social construct) and this have been proven invalid [8] it shows that there will not be a 50/50 ratio of men and women making identical choices. Thus the Gender Wage Gap is not a suitable measure of discrimination or opportunity.

Although it could be a useful metric as a comparison of the average of all men to the average of all women’s paid work, but should not be used to attempt to force litigation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Gender Wage Gap is an unsuitable measure and does not provide useful data on discrimination or opportunity. It does not take individual choice or biological factors into account and is built on the faulty assumption that gender is a social construct.

References

[1] New Republic – How to Equalize the Female Pay Gap
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/118653/how-equalize-female-compensation accessed 29/08/2015

[2] New Brunswick: The Wage Gap Action Plan 2005-2010
https://www.gnb.ca/0012/Womens-Issues/wg-es/tools/pdf/5-Action_E.pdf accessed 29/08/2015

[3] Wage Gap in Rwanda, Burundi and Nicaragua is almost non existent:
http://www.spiked-online.com/newsite/article/global-gender-gap-equality-is-overrated/16110 accessed 29/08/2015

[4] Outcome of Outcome Feminism Assumptions:
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem2.html accessed 17/10/2015

[5] Wage Gap Analysis 1997 – 2013 UK Government:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_353368.pdf accessed 26/10/2015

[6] UK Women in the labour market 1971 – 2013: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_328352.pdf accessed 09/08/2015

[7] 2014 UK Gender Wage Analysis: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295833/Analysis_of_the_Gender_Pay_Gap.pdf accessed 26/10/2015

[8] EgaFem – Discussion of Assumption 6:
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/outcomeoutcomefem6.html accessed 26/10/2015

[9] EgaFem – Factors to be Controlled
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/outcomeoutcomefem1.html accessed 02/11/2015

[10] Netmum's survey on the great work debate:
http://www.netmums.com/home/netmums-campaigns/the-great-work-debate accessed 02/11/2015

[11] Contact Us: Details found at the bottom of the page
http://egafeminist.blogspot.co.uk/p/controbutors.html accessed 05/11/2015